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Astrology & the Chakras Written by Ray Grasse

Understand that thou art another world in little, and hast within thee the Sun and the Moon, and also the stars. -- Origen (185/86-254/55 C.E.) In this article I would like to explore the exciting possibility of bridging two of history's greatest psychological systems -- astrology and the chakras. Conventionally, these two systems have been seen as having little or nothing to do with each other, the former primarily concerning the outer world, or macrocosm, and the latter involving the inner world, or microcosm. In fact, as we shall soon see, these two systems are but two sides of the same coin, each one complementing the other and thus enhancing our understanding of both. Toward a Sacred Psychology of the Horoscope The basic system of correspondences I will be using here is drawn from teachers I have studied with in the Kriya Yoga lineage. The general system of "chakric horoscopes" and their guidelines for interpretation are my own, developed over more than a decade of working with these basic correspondences. With that said, let us begin by exploring some of the core ideas of chakric philosophy. In Sanskrit, the word chakra (sometimes spelled "cakra") literally means "wheel". In yogic philosophy, this term refers to the psychospiritual centers located along the length of the spine, each of which is associated with a different archetypal principle of consciousness. Although there are literally thousands of chakras situated throughout the subtle body, yogic philosophy normally stresses only seven or eight of these. Let us briefly review these primary points and their planetary associations. What Are the Chakras? Chakra 1, at the base of the spine, is called Muladhara. Its element is earth, and it is governed by the planet Saturn. Psychologically, it concerns one's relationship with the material plane, and the principle of limitation in both its constructive and destructive aspects. In its more unbalanced expression, it governs the drive for survival, as well as such states as greed and fear, while its more balanced expression points to such qualities as practicality and worldly skillfulness (business, science, etc.). Chakra 2 is called Svadisthana. Its element is water, and it is ruled by the planet Jupiter. Psychologically, it is one of the centers concerned with emotions. At its grosser levels of expression, it governs such states as escapism, excess, and dogmatism, while its more constructive expressions include enthusiasm and religious devotion. Chakra 3 is called Manipura. Its element is fire, and Mars is its governing planet. This chakra rules over emotions in their more dynamic and energetic forms. Thus, in its less refined state, it relates to anger and combativeness, and is more positively expressed as strength and assertiveness. Chakra 4 is called Anahata. Its element is air, and its corresponding planet is Venus. The psychological focus is on love, beauty, and allurement, and it governs the capacity for harmony in all romantic and social interactions. In its unbalanced form, it produces a tendency toward hedonism, pleasure-seeking, and excessive "sweetness" of temperament, while, when in balance, it can give rise to an exceptional sense of aesthetics, and even unselfish love. Chakra 5 is called Vishudda. Its element is ether, and it is governed by the planet Mercury. This chakra's psychological focus is upon mental self-expression and one's ability to formulate or verbalize thoughts. When unbalanced, it produces chaotic thoughts and/or communications, while its constructive expression tends toward creative spiritual thinking and refined communication skills. Chakra 6 is called Chandra, and is ruled by the Moon. Though overlooked in most published discussions of the chakras, Paramahansa Yogananda described this as the feminine polarity of the Ajna chakra, or "third eye" (to be considered next). Its emphasis is upon awareness in its most reflective or introspective mode, and it governs such qualities as nurturing compassion and psychic sensitivity. Its more destructive expressions include the experience of fearfulness, emotional dependency, and a preoccupation with the past. Chakra 7 is called Ajna and is located in the center of the forehead, also known as the "third eye". Its corresponding planet is the Sun, and it governs the principle of pure consciousness in its most active, visionary, and expressive form, as well as the higher will. In its balanced state, it rules creativity, spiritual energy, and self-expression, while in unbalanced form it can manifest as egoism, willfulness, "dry" awareness without compassion, and the drive for attention. Chakra 8 is called Sahasrara, the "crown chakra" or "thousand-petaled lotus", and exists at the top of the head above the other chakras. Whereas the previous Ajna chakra represents the supreme realization of personal divinity (perceived in meditation as a fivepointed star), the Sahasrara rules our point of contact with the transpersonal divine, the level of "Godconsciousness". However, because this chakra represents a transcendental point beyond the more personal chakras (and, by inference, their astrological correlates), it is largely dormant for most individuals, and can, for purposes of clarity, be left out of our subsequent discussion. Chakra Planet Keywords chakras & astrological planet keywords(8) Sahasrara: The Transcendent, Inspiration (7) Ajna - Sun: Active Awareness, Higher Will (6) Chandra - Moon: Reflective Awareness, Memory (5) Vishudda - Mercury: Thinking, Communication (4) Anahata - Venus: Harmony, Love (3) Manipura - Mars: Force, Strength, Control (2) Svadisthana - Jupiter: Expansiveness, Emotionality (1) Muladhara - Saturn: Structure, Limitation The Twelve Secondary Chakric States Thus far we have been looking at the chakras only in their simplest possible description. In fact, most of the chakras possess at least three different aspects, or faces: feminine (introverted), masculine (extroverted), and spiritual (balanced). In other words, each chakra can be diverted over to either its right side or its left side, or it can be experienced in a perfectly balanced fashion in the very center of the spine. In their right- and left-hand aspects, the chakras are associated with the twelve signs of the zodiac. In each of these three aspects, the psychological energy of any given chakra will manifest in uniquely different ways. For example, when experienced in its more masculine mode (Gemini), the fifth, or Mercury, chakra will generally manifest as interpersonal communications in the waking world, while its more feminine side (Virgo) will tend toward more internalized thought processes, or perhaps even appear within the dream state. In its balanced state within the central channel, however, Mercury rules the mystical mind, that aspect of mentality which truly communes with spirit. Some traditional esoteric sources, such as Cornelius Agrippa, expressed much the same idea in the following way: Saturn rules Aquarius by day and Capricorn by night; Jupiter rules Sagittarius by day and Pisces by night; Mars rules Aries by day and Scorpio by night; Venus rules Libra by day and Taurus by night; Mercury rules Gemini by day and Virgo by night; while the Sun and Moon hold rulership over one sign each, Leo and Cancer. Yet it is only in the very center of each chakric level that the energy of that chakra truly manifests in a spiritually-balanced fashion, beyond the dualistic qualities of the zodiacal wheel. Chakra WheelIn its broadest sense, this shows us that the seven classical planets relate to the twelve signs in a startlingly precise way. One simply spins the zodiac around until they fall into line with these chakric placements. What to do with the three outer planets? Note how they fall into line with the first three chakras,astrology and the chakras in accordance with the zodiacal signs they are commonly associated with by rulership. Hence, Pluto equates to the feminine side of the Mars chakra (Scorpio), Neptune to the feminine side of the Jupiter chakra (Pisces), and Uranus to the masculine side of the Saturn chakra (Aquarius). In yogic philosophy, each of these peripheral chakric centers represents a kind of memory tract or "storage bin" for karmas and life impressions; whatever we feel, think, and experience is logged into the energy fields of the spinal column. In this way, habit patterns (or samskaras, in yogic terminology) are built up over time, and etched into the subconscious psyche, where they continue to compel us toward particular behaviors from lifetime to lifetime.2 The Chakric Science of Personality Every personality is comprised of these basic archetypal elements, although in widely varying combinations. Depending on an individual's karmic patterns, subtle energies concentrate themselves in different areas of the chakric system, where they are then employed toward either constructive or destructive ends. In this manner, complex patterns are constellated throughout an individual's chakric centers. Although every person experiences all of these centers to one degree or another, certain chakras will tend to be more dominant for some than for others. Hence, a more artistic person may have the fourth chakra emphasized, whereas an intellectual type may have the fifth chakra emphasized, and so forth. One useful way to illustrate this point is through the notion of sub personalities, since each chakra has its own unique traits or "personifications". Utilizing this system of correspondences, we can describe the different chakras in the following way: the first, or Saturn, chakra can be metaphorically described as the "Inner Politician" or the "Inner Architect"; the second, or Jupiter, chakra is the "Inner Optimist" or the "Inner Preacher"; the third, or Mars, chakra is, plain and simple, the "Inner Warrior"; the fourth, or Venus, chakra is the "Inner Lover," or the "Inner Artist"; the fifth, or Mercury, chakra is the "Inner Communicator" or the "Inner Thinker"; the sixth, or lunar, chakra is the "Inner Mother" or the "Inner Queen"; the seventh, or solar, chakra is the "Inner Father" or the "Inner King". Certain chakric levels will be emphasized in any given horoscope, and this will determine an individual's most dominant sub-personalities. Chakric interpretation using the signs We have seen how the twelve signs closely correspond to the different chakras by spinning the zodiac around until Cancer and Leo are positioned at the top of the wheel. The placement of a person's planets within these different signs will therefore provide important clues as to which chakric levels are emphasized. For example, any large constellation of planets in Libra or Taurus would indicate a heavy focus of attention, karmically speaking, on the lessons of the heart, or fourth, chakra, while planets in Scorpio or Aries would indicate a focus of energies on the naval, or third, chakra, and so forth. In theory, these chakric emphases would manifest as energy patterns within those corresponding areas of the person's aura, which would in turn be perceptible to sufficiently clairvoyant individuals. This kind of interpretation can be refined to a considerable degree since each planet is subtly different in the way it amplifies any given chakric level. For example, Saturn located in one chakra has a dramatically different effect than when Jupiter is found in that same chakric center. Specifically, wherever Saturn is placed shows in what area of experience one may feel especially challenged to grow, or, in its most frustrating form, where one may feel denied in some way. In a subtler sense, of course, the placement of Saturn indicates the chakric level at which one may also find the greatest depth of wisdom carried over from past lives. In any event, one would probably have to work very hard for desired results in the chakric level inhabited by Saturn, although for that very reason one might also have a much greater appreciation for the rewards of that chakra, just as a man stranded in the desert would have greater appreciation for a glass of water than a man swimming in a river. By contrast, in whatever chakra Jupiter is placed indicates where one experiences more obvious blessings and good fortune, where there is a more fluid opening and expression of life energies -- possibly to excess. Arguably, the most important significators to look for, chakrically, are the Sun, Moon, and Ascendant. Simply by studying these basic points, one can, I believe, learn a great deal about an individual's chakric focus in this life. For instance, Sun in Gemini would strongly suggest a heightened focus upon the throat chakra of mentality and communication, whereas Sun in Capricorn would point to an intense direction of energies toward the earth plane and the establishment of success, recognition, or simply balance on this level. As most astrologers know, these primary indicators (Sun, Moon, and Ascendant) have their own unique and subtly different shades of meaning -- a source of lively debate among astrologers over the years. My own feeling on this matter is that the Moon indicates the chakric level one is coming from both emotionally and karmically; the Ascendant shows where the everyday personality in this life is presently at, in terms of visible, habitual ways of thinking and relating; and the Sun indicates the chakric direction one is aspiring toward in this life, and which one is attempting to bring into creative manifestation. This, then, has been only the briefest introduction to yogic chakric philosophy, and some of the ways it can illuminate our understanding of the conventional, or Western horoscope. It is my hope that in the years to come the further exploration of this synthesis will provide us with the foundation for a true "sacred psychology," one that more fully unlocks astrology's spiritual potentials


Searching for Planet X - How Will Astrologers Unlock the Meaning of A New Planet? by Ray Grasse

Artwork of Planet X Of all the discoveries made by astronomers during the last few centuries, few if any have held as much importance or excitement for astrologers as the announcement of a new planet in our solar system. And it just so happens that we've been hearing lately about mounting evidence for a new, previously unknown body at the fringes of our solar system—likely the size of Neptune and orbiting the Sun once every 10,000 to 20,000 years. For astronomers, faithfully abiding by Pluto's official demotion from its former status as "planet," this new body is generally referred to by unofficial title "Planet Nine"— though I'd prefer to go with the alternative moniker suggested by others, Planet X. If confirmed, this would of course be a special cause for celebration amongst astrologers, but also a certain amount of hand-wringing. Why either? I say "celebration" because, for astrologers, a new planet represents a novel state of consciousness in the collective psyche, and with it a new set of symbolic possibilities. Think of it as similar to a painter acquiring a new color to add to his or her palette. (Of course, "new" is a relative term here, since any newfound planet would have existed for eons of time, just hidden from sight, with its discovery symbolizing those energies emerging more prominently into consciousness.) On the other hand, a discovery would inaugurate a certain amount of "hand-wringing," too, since it would begin the thorny process of determining just what this new body means—something that could take years or even decades for astrologers to determine, or agree upon. While it's obviously too early to say anything concrete about Planet X, there are some general guidelines we could draw up regarding what we have to look for once the announcement has been made. After all, we do have some experience in these matters, considering humanity's encounter with the previous three trans-Saturnians: Uranus in 1781, Neptune in 1846, and Pluto in 1930. By looking to what occurred in the years surrounding those three discoveries, we can find some useful pointers as to how we might approach any other discovered bodies. What follows are a few simple examples of what I mean. The Revolutionary Impact of New Planets AnimationPerhaps the most obvious point to make about the earlier bodies is the way each one coincided with assorted rumblings of social revolution. That makes a certain archetypal sense when you consider how each new planet represents a disruption in the established astronomical order, as literally a new world of knowledge opens up for humanity. Will that happen with the discovery of the next new planet? Almost certainly—and to my mind, that possibility is underscored by this body's predicted orbit. Whereas Pluto extended the boundaries of our solar system far beyond their previous limits, the new planet is theorized to be roughly 10 times farther out from our Sun than Pluto. If nothing else, that suggests the state of consciousness it represents could be very out of the ordinary! Let's see if we can narrow this down a bit more, by speculating about a few specific areas. Politics Around the time of Uranus's discovery in the late 1700s the world was in the throes of a monumental political shift with the rise of modern democracy, exemplified by the American and French Revolutions. The period around the discovery of Neptune also represented a period of upheaval, reflected not only in the European riots of the late 1840s but by a growing concern over the rights of the downtrodden and the enslaved throughout the mid-1800s. The years on either side of Pluto's discovery were turbulent as well, coming at the tail end of the so-called "Roaring 20s" and shortly after the start of a worldwide depression. There was growing anger among ordinary citizens across the world over our broken political and economic systems, which precipitated reforms in America by "New Deal" president Franklin Roosevelt, while in Germany and Italy led to the rise of fascist dictators who channeled that populist rage in different ways. The social shifts throughout all three of these centuries represented a rising up of oppressed and ordinary peoples over growing injustices and inequalities. Does that give us some clues as to what might happen with the new planet? If so, it may well explain some of the unrest we're already seeing in countries around the world. Technological Changes and New Energy Sources Each of the previous three discoveries has accompanied stunning developments in both science and technology, as well as in our ability to access and exploit Nature's resources. The very Uranian 1700s saw the rise of mechanization and the Industrial Revolution, including assembly-line mass production, steam power, and early investigations into electricity. During Neptune's century, humanity awoke to the potentials of another major fuel source—oil. (The same year Neptune was discovered, businessman Samuel M. Kier from Pittsburgh found oil seeping into his salt well, which he bottled and sold as medicine, and in 1859 the world's first oil well was drilled.) And the years around the discovery of Pluto witnessed the unlocking of the atom, and with it the daunting specter of atomic energy. What could a new planet signal? It's worth noting we're already seeing a growing number of stories in the media about new or alternative energy sources, including clean energy and renewables and a renewed interest in cold fusion. Or will it turn out to be something entirely different from anything known before? Aviation JunoAs I've written about elsewhere, the discovery of Uranus coincided with the birth of modern aviation, with the launch of the first hot-air balloon in 1783 by the Montgolfier brothers in France. In the years around Neptune's discovery, George Cayley built the first manned gilder, and Henri Gilfard built the first airship powered by an aircraft engine (unsuccessfully, alas). And of course the 1900s saw the rapid rise not only of conventional aviation but the first liquid-fueled rockets in 1926, culminating eventually in space travel. It's tempting to speculate about another quantum leap in aviation or space exploration. Perhaps that will involve the much-discussed "EmDrive" technology, designed in 2001 by aerospace engineer Roger Shawyer and thought by some to revolutionize space travel. Or could it be the development of anti-gravitational technology, so often discussed in UFO-related circles? Archaeology and History To my mind, one of the more intriguing aspects of all the trans-Saturnian discoveries has been the way each one has coincided with a shift in our understanding of history. Think of it this way: because of the time it takes for light to travel, this literally means that the further out into space we look, the further into the past we are seeing. (When we look at Pluto through a telescope, for example, we're actually seeing how it appeared five hours earlier.) As a result, the uncovering of these previously invisible bodies in our solar system can be viewed synchronistically mirroring a corresponding opening up of previously hidden knowledge about the deep past. The same decade as Uranus's discovery, for example, geologist James Hutton presented a paper to the Royal Society of Edinburg arguing that the Earth was far older than generally believed—and ever since then our sense of the past has continued to exponentially push beyond previous boundaries, from the once-thought 6000 years suggested by the Bible to the 13 billion years theorized by modern cosmologists. Nor is it just our planet's age that has undergone a major overhaul. As a result of Darwin's theory of evolution, we've revised the antiquity of the human species itself, as new discoveries in archeology have also continued to alter the way we date civilization's origins, too. Archaeological discoveries at sites like Gobekli Tepe in Turkey and Gunung Padang in Indonesia have forced us to rethink the true birth of human society by thousands of years. It's interesting to contemplate how our grasp of history could change with the discovery of a planet many times farther out than Pluto! Economics Interestingly enough, there have even been shifts in our economic philosophies and systems with each new planetary discovery. The birth of modern capitalism is commonly associated with the publication of Adam Smith's An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations in 1776, just five years before the discovery of Uranus. The birth of modern socialism is associated with the publication of Karl Marx's "Communist Manifesto" in 1848—coinciding closely with the discovery of Neptune. Besides witnessing the rise of the modern "Plutocrat," the years around Pluto's discovery saw the rise of "Keynesian economics," with the publication of The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money by John Maynard Keynes in 1936. In addition to ushering in the concept of macroeconomics, Keynes work has been called "revolutionary" because of his views about the role of government in regulating free xafss. It's hardly far-fetched to imagine that a new planet could signal a new phase in our global economic system, and the way we fundamentally see money—especially considering the already-revolutionary impact the internet is having on how we do business. Some Technical Considerations There are a few other points that could be useful when approaching a new planet and gauging it's importance in our own lives. * One of the classic methods used by astrologers for understanding a new body is by studying the mythological name assigned to it by Size astronomers. The underlying belief here is that a certain synchronicity exists between that naming and its inherent nature. Despite some disagreement among astrologers over the reliability of this method, my own feeling is that—despite its limitations—it remains an extremely useful tool for unlocking a planet's symbolism and meaning. 1 * Some further clues may also lie in the Sabian Symbol of the zodiacal degree occupied by the planet when it's found. For example, Uranus was at 24 Gemini 27 when it was discovered, thereby placing it fully in the 25th degree of that sign. The Sabian symbol for that degree? A GARDERNER TRIMMING LARGE PALM TREES. Considering the legacy Uranus has bequeathed to us in terms of modern technologies, there's something fitting about the fact that its discovery was associated with an image of humans manipulating and reshaping nature. In much the same way, it's possible that the Sabian Symbol for a new planet could shed light on its meaning and subsequent role in humanity's future. * There have already been some discussions as to what zodiacal sign Planet X could possibly rule. Presuming that Venus now rules Libra and that Mercury rules Gemini (though some dispute those associations), then the new planet could conceivably rule either Virgo or Taurus. Or is it possible this new planet falls outside the conventional rulership scheme altogether? Or might it enjoy another "co-rulership" status similar to the way Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto are viewed by many as sharing rulerships of Aquarius, Pisces, and Scorpio? One approach that could help shed some light on this would be to closely study world events around the planet's discovery, and see if they resonate to any one sign more than another. * Yet another way to gather insights into a planet's symbolism is to track the ephemeris and watch what happens each time another planet conjuncts, squares, or opposes it. By way of illustration, a search of major transits to Uranus over the years, coupled with a scan of news or historical accounts, clearly suggests it has something to do with technology and social change (among other things). What would we learn from studying what happens whenever Jupiter, Saturn, or Uranus conjunct the new planet? This could also be done retroactively, by looking back over recent decades and centuries to see if any common threads emerge from its encounter with other planetary bodies. * Last but not least, once an ephemeris for the new planet has been established, look at your own date of birth to see where the body falls in your horoscope, to understand what significance it might be in your life. Because of its great remoteness, Planet X's orbit would necessarily be so slow that it could remain in the same zodiacal region for long periods; as a result, it's important to see if the planet specifically lands on an angle in your horoscope, such as the Ascendant or Midheaven, or if it's conjunct a personal planet like the Sun or Moon. Contacts like these would suggest a far more intimate significance for you than for the average person. These are just a few ideas to keep in mind should an announcement about the new planet be forthcoming anytime soon. Stay tuned! Footnotes: 1. The debate over the value of mythic names assigned by astronomers to planets has come up most frequently in connection with the astrological Uranus. My friend and colleague Rick Tarnas has suggested that the rebellious Greek titan Prometheus is in some ways more fitting to convey the essence of Uranus than the tyrannical sky-god Ouranos. While I believe there's an important truth there, I don't think we can dispense with the Ouranos association altogether. I say that because the astrological Uranus strikes me as embodying both extremes of that rebel/tyrant polarity, as part of a two-fold dynamic. For instance a Promethean rebel by his/her very nature implies an oppressive power being railed against, while a tyrannical sky-god implies creatures who are being subjugated by that power. Neither one of those truly exists in isolation, with that balance of power shifting from one extreme to the other, teeter-totter style. Uranus is like that, too. As an imaginative example of this dynamic, consider the "Skynet" technology portrayed in James Cameron's Terminator films. Though having originated in the minds of brilliant techno-geeks, that technology is depicted as transforming over time into a tyrannical "sky-god" all its own, with artificially intelligent machines dominating and potentially even eradicating humanity. Or, for a more real-life example which illustrates much the same dynamic, look to how the Uranian energy manifested itself politically across the world shortly after its discovery. Having begun with upstart rebels in countries like America and France, over time those same Promethean energies morphed into their virtual opposite, and with equally tyrannical ferocity--e.g. France's "Reign of Terror" under figures like Robespierre, or the United States' eventual transformation from a beacon of freedom to an imperial military force hurling Promethean fire back down to Earth via drones and hi-tech bombers. In short, both the mythologies of both Prometheus and Ouranos offer valuable keys towards understanding Uranus's powerful—and complex—symbolism.


From the beginning of America’s History, George Washington was deified as Jupiter

The promise of America? With the Right to FREEDOM OF RELIGION, mankind could become ONE with the Gods. And to prove it, the forefathers of America portrayed George Washington as actually becoming Jupiter himself. George Washington is America's FATHER. The Father of the Jews The Jew FATHER Pater means Father The Jew Pater JU Pater JUPITER = George Washington GEORGE WASHINGTON = 1122 1122 = 33 1122 = 222 = 2/22 = George Washington's Birthday 11/22 = the day Kennedy was assassinated and an occultic elite society took over America. The Slide: Shows a comparison of two statues, The one on the left is of George Washington, the Father of America, carved in 1840 AD, this statue once stood in the center of the United States Capitol Dome. The statue on the right is of JUPITER, the FATHER of the Romans and the Roman Gods. This statue was carved around 100 AD. These two statues are separated by 1,700 years, yet they are virtually identical and a symbol of what the connection between Heaven and Earth can look like. George Washington = Jupiter = Zeus = Horus = Jesus Again, the message: In America you are FREE, Free to become a God. Free to ascend in mind and Spirit. FREEDOM FREE DOME Remember, Domes are the Sacred Space of the Gods. Domes are portals between Heaven and Earth. Our Heads are Domes. WE are the connection between Heaven and Earth. Finally notice the EAGLE at Jupiter's side. The Eagle was Jupiter himself, he would often take the form of an Eagle. The Eagle is America's totem as well. Jupiter's Eagle would carry LIGHTNING. America's Eagle carries SERPENTS and Arrows. Lightning = Arrows = Serpents = Pure Energy


I got into an argument with someone on another post about the Cross

I said a Cross is just another form of Saturn Worship because an Unfolded Saturn Cube is a Cross. And so False Christianity, Judaism, and Islam ALL WORSHIP SATURN in reality. I'm Pretty Sure he wasn't Crucified on a Cross. It was either a Stake, or a Living Tree. And I lean towards it being a Tree.... "Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a TREE" (Galatians 3:13, KJV). "He himself bore our sins in his body on the TREE..." (1 Peter 2:24, NIV). "Who his own self bare our sins in his own body on the TREE..." (1 Peter 2:24, KJV). If you check into the original Greek of the above passages you will see that the Greek word xulou (or xulon) is translated tree -- not "cross." In all these instances the tree was a living tree! The Messiah himself said at the very time he was being led to his crucifixion: "For if they do these things in (dative: with) a green tree, what shall be done in (dative: with) the dry?" (Luke 23:31). This comment clearly shows that the Messiah was crucified with (or by means of) a living tree. This was the instrument by which he was executed."


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